To refine extracted ores you MUST use a   2 : 1 :1   Ratio!

For  example:

In order to make Grain Steel you must open the REFINING window( refiningIconImage ). Place Pig Iron in the PRIMARY slot, Coke and Calx Powder in the SECONDARY slots.

7,000 units of Grain Steel == 10k Pig iron, 5k Coke, 5k Calx Powder respectively.

Result Primary Secondary Secondary
Grain Steel Pig Iron Coke Calx Powder
Steel Grain Steel Coal Saburra Powder
Tungsteel Grainsteel Lupium Granum Powder
Bron Cuprum Bleck Saburra Powder
Messing Cuprum Calamine Saburra Powder
Tindremic Messing Messing Almine Gem Metal
Cronite Grain Steel Almine Arconite
Oghmium Tungsteel Cronite Sanguinite

Note: Your yeilds will be lower until all lores for the materials are higher

(Link to Ores and their extraction values)